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1、 Seismic Performance of Pile-Wharf Connections Dawn E. Lehman1, Emily Brackmann2, Amanda Jellin3 and Charles W. Roeder4 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-27

2、00; email: delehman@u.washington.edu. 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700; email: brackmem@u.washington.edu. 3HDR Engineering, 601 Union St, Seattle,

3、WA 98101 4Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700; email: croeder@u.washington.edu. ABSTRACT Pile-supported marginal wharves are a critical infrastructure c

4、omponent of ports. Experience from previous earthquakes indicates that the connection between the pile and the wharf deck is a major source of damage during and earthquake. Previous studies indicate that although conn

5、ections designed using current guidelines can maintain cyclic drift demands, they sustain damage and initiate strength deterioration, even at low levels of drift. Therefore, there is an interest in improving the perfo

6、rmance of precast pile connections. A study to improve the performance of pile-wharf connections, part of the NEES-GC Seismic Risk Mitigation of Ports, was undertaken to develop damage-resistant connection. The results

7、 of the study and associated performance tools are summarized. To mitigate the pile and deck damage, several structural concepts were evaluated including (1) intentional debonding of the headed reinforcing bars, (2)

8、supplemental rotation capacity through the addition of a cotton duck bearing pad and (3) supplemental material to sustain the lateral deformations while minimizing deck damage. The test results show minimal damage and

9、 strength loss relative to current practice and achieving performance-based design objectives. These results have been combined with prior test results on connections. By separating the connection responses by categori

10、es, individual connection-rotation based fragility curves have been developed for three repair-specific damage states. These curves would be appropriate for performance-based evaluation of older, current, or innovativ

11、e connections in port construction. INTRODUCTION Ports are an essential contributor to a country’s economic stability. Imports and exports play an increasing role in the economic activity or our society, and ports ar

12、e the facilities that collect the goods and begin the this journey. Ports located along the western coast of the United States of America are susceptible to damage from earthquakes. Preventing seismic damage to the por

13、ts, which would cause them to be inactive, is crucial to the fiscal security of the country. Evaluating the seismic TCLEE 2009: Lifeline Earthquake Engineering in a Multihazard Environment ©2009 ASCE 865TCLEE 2009

14、Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Changsha University of Science and Technology on 12/31/14. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.The extended pile connection (Fig. 2b) is a subset of the dowel con

15、nection, and it is primarily used when piles are overdriven below the bottom surface of the wharf deck structure. This pile is extended as a reinforced concrete column, and the connection is effectively are reinforced

16、 concrete connection rather than a precast pile connection. Several different types of embedded dowel connections exist. The dowels could be T-headed bars, with or without spliced bars within the connection, or hooked

17、 or bent bars, which are bent either inward or outward into the wharf superstructure. T-headed dowels are currently quite popular in embedded dowel connections, because the T-headed bars provide the required anchorage

18、with a short development length and less interference with concrete and deck rebar placement. In all configurations the dowels are first grouted into ducts in the precast pile, and then cast into the reinforced concre

19、te deck. The pile is also embedded in the deck several inches to provide corrosion protection to the reinforcement and bearing resistance for shear transfer between the precast pile and the wharf superstructure. PRIOR

20、RESEARCH Previous earthquakes (1989 Loma Prieta, 1995 Great Hanshin, 1999 Kocaeli, and others) have demonstrated pile and pile-structural connection damage such as illustrated in Fig 3. Damaged piles and connectors a

21、re unable to support heavy gravity loads and lateral loads. This damage is difficult to repair, and it results in large costs due to disruption of shipping, damage to operating equipment, as well as repair or replacem

22、ent of the damaged structural system. Economic damage caused by lost shipping and economic activity or by repair and replacement costs due to past earthquakes have been huge. Further, there is a substantial risk of

23、damage and collapse associated with performance of the soil-structural subsystem. Figure 3. Damage to Pile Connections in Loma Prieta and Kobe Earthquakes A number of past studies have examined the seismic performance o

24、f embedded dowel connections and extended pile connections (Joen and Park 1994, Silva et al. 1997, Silva 1998, Sritharan and Priestley 1998, Graff 2001, Soderstrom 2001, and Roeder et al. 2005). The details of the t

25、est specimens vary widely, but consistent observations can be made from test results. Precast concrete piles are TCLEE 2009: Lifeline Earthquake Engineering in a Multihazard Environment ©2009 ASCE 867TCLEE 2009 Dow

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